Madhesh Province (Nepali/Maithili: मधेश प्रदेश) is a province in the southeastern region of Nepal that was formed after the adoption of the Constitution of Nepal. It is Nepal's second most populous province, and smallest province by area. It borders Madhesh Province to the east, Bagmati Province to the north, and India to the south. It has a population of 5,404,145 as per the 2011 Census of Nepal, making it the most densely populated province of Nepal. It has an area of 9,661 km2 (3,730 sq mi)-about 6.5% of the country's total area. The Koshi River and Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve acts as provincial demarcation border between Province No. 2 and Madhes Province in the east. And the demarcation line between Chitwan National Park and Parsa National Park (previously Wildlife Reserve) acts as provincial demarcation border between Madhesh Province and Bagmati Province in the west. The province includes eight districts from Saptari District in the east to Parsa District in the west. The majority of the province's population speaks Maithili, Bhojpuri, Bajjika and Nepali. The Capital city, a sub-metropolitan city of Janakpur, also known as Janakpurdham, is a centre for religious and cultural tourism. It is also thought to have been the capital of the Videha dynasty that ruled Mithila region in ancient times. The first urban planned municipality of Nepal, Rajbiraj, is also the oldest municipality of the Terai belt of Nepal. The town is believed to have been named after the ancient Rajdevi temple, which dates back to the 1700s. The metropolitan city of Birgunj is an economically important industrial centre and the only metropolitan city in the province. On 17 January 2021, the meeting of Provincial assembly declared Janakpur as capital of Province No. 2 while the province was renamed to Madhesh Province.[15] Hari Shankar Mishra is the Head of Province while Mohammad Lalbabu Raut Gaddhi is the current Chief Minister.

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