Koshi Province is one of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal which was adopted on 20 September 2015. As per a CDC (Constituency Delimitation Commission) report, Koshi Province has 28 parliamentary seats and 56 provincial seats under the first-past-the-post voting system. As per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, the city of Biratnagar was declared the interim capital of Koshi Province. It was declared as the permanent capital of Province No. 1 on 6 May 2019 when two-third of MLAs voted in favour of Biratnagar in provincial assembly of Koshi Province. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal to the east, Bagmati Province and Madhesh Province to the west, and Bihar of India to the south. According to the 2011 census, there are around 4.5 million people in the province, with a population density of 175.6 per square kilometer.

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