Province No. 1 (proposed names: Koshi or Purbanchal) is one of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal which was adopted on 20 September 2015. As per a CDC (Constituency Delimitation Commission) report, Province No. 1 has 28 parliamentary seats and 56 provincial seats under the first-past-the-post voting system. As per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, the city of Biratnagar was declared the interim capital of Province No. 1. It was declared as the permanent capital of Province No. 1 on 6 May 2019 when two-third of MLAs voted in favour of Biratnagar in provincial assembly of Province No. 1. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal to the east, Province No. 3 and Province No. 2 to the west, and Bihar of India to the south. According to the 2011 census, there are around 4.5 million people in the province, with a population density of 175.6 per square kilometer.

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